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Table 4 Prevalence of mycotoxin contamination in agricultural commodities intended for animal consumption in Costa Rica

From: Chemical assessment of mycotoxin contaminants and veterinary residues in Costa Rican animal feed

Samples (n, counts)

Prevalence, %[Samples over limit of detection, (n)]

Minimum mycotoxin concentration ± Ux/x, μg kg− 1

Maximum mycotoxin concentration ± Ux/x, μg kg− 1

Concentration rangea, μg kg− 1

   

x < LoD

x < 5

5 ≤ x < 10

10 ≤ x <  20

x ≥ 20

 Aflatoxin B 2

196

6

0

2

1

4.39 [9]

0.46 ± 0.06

22.39 ± 2.73

 Aflatoxin G 1

195

9

0

0

1

4.88 [10]

0.13 ± 0.01

22.95 ± 2.80

 Aflatoxin B 1

193

11

0

1

0

5.85 [12]

0.016 ± 0.002

12.61 ± 1.54

 Aflatoxin G 2

179

24

1

1

0

12.68 [26]

0.054 ± 0.007

19.14 ± 2.34

x < LoD

x <  250

250 ≤ x < 500

500 ≤ x < 1000

x ≥ 1000

   

 β-zearalenol

202

1

0

1

1

1.46 [3]

228.03 ± 27.86

1900.62 ± 232.24

 Nivalenol

199

5

0

0

1

2.93 [6]

16.71 ± 2.04

1202.75 ± 146.98

3-acetyldeoxynivalenol

186

11

3

3

1

8.78 [18]

1.88 ± 0.23

3236.56 ± 395.51

 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol

186

16

3

0

0

9.27 [19]

1.74 ± 0.21

355.60 ± 43.45

 α-zearalenol

183

20

1

1

0

10.73 [22]

0.25 ± 0.03

920.65 ± 112.50

 Deoxynivalenol

180

24

1

0

0

12.20 [25]

0.20 ± 0.02

364.10 ± 44.49

 Zearalenone

170

18

8

4

5

24.75 [35]

70.37 ± 80.60

6518.28 ± 796.54

x < LoD

50 < x

125 ≤ x < 250

250 ≤ x < 500

x ≥ 500

   

 Fusarenone-X

203

0

0

0

2

0.98 [2]

64.49 ± 7.93

470.52 ± 57.99

 Diacetoxyscirpenol

198

2

1

3

1

3.41 [7]

42.92 ± 5.25

1132.19 ± 138.34

 Citrinin

197

8

0

0

0

3.90 [8]

0.34 ± 0.03

52.48 ± 6.41

x < LoD

5 < x

10 ≤ x < 25

25 ≤ x < 50

x ≥ 50

   

 Patulin

203

0

0

0

2

0.98 [2]

56.65 ± 6.92

88.56 ± 10.82

 Neosolaniol

201

0

0

1

3

1.95 [4]

49.52 ± 6.05

911.64 ± 111.39

 Ochratoxin B

199

2

2

1

1

2.93 [6]

6.28 ± 0.77

180.50 ± 22.05

 Ochratoxin A

184

3

3

4

11

10.24 [21]

3.64 ± 0.44

590.79 ± 72.19

x < LoD

x < 250

250 ≤ x < 500

500 ≤ x < 1000

x ≥ 1000

   

 Sterigmatocystin

199

0

2

2

2

2.93 [6]

330.02 ± 40.32

1246.54 ± 152.32

 Enniatin B 1

190

15

0

0

0

7.32 [15]

0.16 ± 0.02

158.43 ± 19.36

 T-2 toxin

187

17

1

0

0

8.78 [18]

1.67 ± 0.20

254.17 ± 31.06

 HT-2 toxin

181

23

1

0

0

11.71 [24]

6.38 ± 0.78

303.22 ± 37.05

 Enniatin B

174

5

11

10

5

15.12 [31]

143.11 ± 17.49

3566.81 ± 435.83

x < LoD

x < 1250

1250 ≤ x < 2500

2500 ≤ x < 5000

x ≥ 5000

   

 Fumonisin B 1

103

92

6

4

0

49.76 [102]

43.64 ± 5.33

4554.36 ± 556.36

 Fumonisin B 2

95

88

10

8

4

53.66 [110]

24.01 ± 2.93

8646.67 ± 1056.64

  1. aThresholds based on guidance values for mycotoxins in animal feeds within the European Union (Peng et al. 2018)