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Table 1 Wine Pb concentration by country

From: A human health risk assessment of lead (Pb) ingestion among adult wine consumers

Country

N (%)

Mean Pb (μg/L)

References

Argentina

20 (4%)

72.5

(Lara et al. 2005)

Australia

28 (6%)

5.0

(Hague et al. 2008; Kristensen et al. 2016)

Brazil

13 (3%)

75.4

(Dessuy et al. 2008; Dessuy et al. 2011; Schiavo et al. 2008)

Bulgaria

2 (<1%)

21.0

(Karadjova et al. 2007)

Chile

6 (1%)

42.4

(Dessuy et al. 2008; Schiavo et al. 2008)

China

3 (1%)

22.4

(Wu et al. 2007)

Croatia

8 (2%)

32.6

(Tariba et al. 2011)

France

1 (<1%)

8.0

(Ajtony et al. 2008)

Germany

2 (<1%)

20.4

(Ajtony et al. 2008)

Hungary

35 (7%)

35.0

(Ajtony et al. 2008)

Italy

68 (14%)

47.2

(Elçi et al. 2009; Illuminati et al. 2014; Karadjova et al. 2007; La Pera et al. 2008)

Macedonia

2 (<1%)

22.3

(Karadjova et al. 2007)

Portugal

43 (9%)

51.6

(Catarino et al. 2006; Catarino et al. 2007; da Costa et al. 2014; Santos et al. 2013; Yamasaki et al. 2012)

Romania

63 (13%)

40.5

(Bora et al. 2015; Geana et al. 2013)

Spain

86 (18%)

15.7

(Ajtony et al. 2008, Dessuy et al. 2008, Gonzalvez et al. 2008; Grindlay et al. 2009; Grindlay et al. 2008; Iglesias et al. 2007; Moreno et al. 2007)

Turkey

23 (5%)

0.1

(Aydin et al. 2010; Yıldız et al. 2011)

Ukraine

8 (2%)

0.5

(Vystavna et al. 2014)

United States

61 (13%)

4.4

(Elçi et al. 2009; Wilson 2015)

Total

472 (100%)

30.4